Summary. There is no disease registry for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in Croatia. According to the annual report of registered diseases, the number of patients with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures increased during the last 10 years. In 2004, 0.70% of all registered diseases in Croatia referred to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of osteoporosis in Croatia is similar to other European countries, while the prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic fractures is somewhat higher. It is estimated that 90 000 men and 77 000 women in Croatia older than 50 years have vertebral fractures. The prevalence is more frequent in older age and in women, although the great number of men (16.2%) were diagnosed as having osteoporosis using ultrasound densitometry. Calcium intake is found to be a dominant risk factor for building-up and maintenance of bone density.