Summary. Organ transplantation becomes an accepted method of treatment, being closely accompanied with the development of transplantation ethics. Numerous problems and dilemmas occurring in this process can be grouped as problems connected with confirming death, and ethic dilemmas connected with obtaining and distributing organs. An attempt to overcome a chronic great lack of cadaver donors is made by various creative attitudes that can be applied only if they fulfill ethical criteria. A difficult question of just organ distribution causes many ethical dilemmas. Solution should be sought in the multidisciplinary approach of bioethics with medicine, politics, legislature and sociology.