FLOW CYTOMETRY IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME. STEP FORWARD.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) represents a heterogeneous group of clonal diseases originating from altered (malignant) hematopoietic stem cells. Clinically, it manifests as cytopenia in peripheral blood, dysplastic changes in one or more cell lines in bone marrow and increased risk of evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acquired chromosomal aberrations are detected in 40-50% of MDS patients. According to WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues (Lion 2008), MDS diagnosis is based on the morphological interpretation of found dysplastic changes, the number of blasts, the presence of ring sideroblasts in bone marrow and the established cytogenetic abnormalities. The progress made in recent years in immunophenotyping of hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature cells of dysplastic bone marrow gives to multiparameter flow cytometric analysis (MFC), although initially included as an optional technique, an opportunity to become a standard part of the integrated MDS diagnosis and prognosis.