Gordon Holmes syndrome – first time diagnosed in Croatia

Autori:

Vesna Brinar, Karin Zibar Tomšić, David Ozretić, Franko Stepčić

Sažetak
Prikazuje se 38-godišnja bolesnica koja se klinički prezentirala ataksijom, kognitivnom disfunkcijom i sekundarnom amenorejom, s izraženim hiperintenzivnim promjenama na magnetskoj rezonanciji mozga (MR). Klinički simptomi počeli su u dobi od 20 godina razvojem sekundarne amenoreje, nestabilnosti u hodu i kognitivnom disfunkcijom. Iako je ovakav skup povezanih simptoma ataksije, primarne/sekundarne amenoreje uslijed hipogonadotropnog hipogonadizma i kognitivne disfunkcije poznat kao Gordon Holmesov sindrom (GHS), takav do sada nije opisan u Hrvatskoj. Zbog navedenog, dotadašnja klinička dijagnostika u različitim neurološkim institucijama koja je bila u početku usmjerena primarno na ataksiju, kognitivni poremećaj te nalaz hiperintenzivnih promjena na MR-u mozga, zanemarujući sekundarnu amenoreju, bila je neuspješna. Analizom velike grupe autosomno- recesivnih cerebelarnih ataksija naša grupa uočila je podudarnost skupa kliničkih simptoma: cerebelarne ataksije, kognitivne disfunkcije i hipogonadotropnog hipogonadizma, uz karakterističan MR nalaz specifičnih subkortikalnih hiperintenzivnih promjena bijele tvari, talamusa i moždanog debla i cerebelarne atrofije, koji čine sindrom uzrokovan mutacijom gena ATM RNF216, Gordon Holmesov sindrom. Sekvencijska genomska analiza učinjena u Variantyx laboratoriju u SAD-u pokazala je u naše bolesnice složenu heterozigotnu mutaciju RNF216 što je potvrdilo dijagnozu GHS-a, prvi put dijagnosticiranog u Hrvatskoj.
Summary

We present a 38-year-old woman with clinical presentation of ataxia, cognitive impairment, and secondary amenorrhea with remarkable brain hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical symptoms began at the age of 20 years with the development of secondary amenorrhea, instability, and cognitive dysfunction. Although this set of medical symptoms of ataxia, primary/secondary amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and cognitive impairment are known as Gordon Holmes syndrome, such has not been described in Croatia so far. Because of this, the patient was unsuccessfully diagnostically investigated in
various neurological institutions on different neurodegenerative diseases, primarily based on ataxia, cognitive impairment, and remarkable brain hyperintensities on brain MRI. We started to analyze a large group of possible genetically triggered autosomal-recessive degenerative ataxias, and noticed compatibility of clinical symptoms: cerebellar ataxia, cognitive impairment, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, along with brain MRI changes characterized with significant subcortical white matter, thalamic, and brain steam confluent patchy areas of hyperintensity and cerebellar atrophy, that constitute a syndrome caused by ATM RNF216 gene mutation, Gordon Holmes syndrome (GHS). Genetic analysis in Variantyx laboratory in the USA performing whole-exome
sequencing showed compound heterozygous for RNF 216 mutation, which confirmed the diagnosis of GHS, for the first time diagnosed in Croatia.

Volumen: 3-4, 2021

Liječ Vjesn 2021;143:103–107

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