Summary. This review seeks to bring novel findings of genetic basis of melanoma. CDKN2A and CDK4 genes residing on chromosomes 9p21 and 12q14, as well as MC1R gene located at 16q24 are main candidates responsible for melanoma develop- ment and progression. These genes together with signal transduction pathways in which they are implied are primarily changed in hereditary melanoma. Moreover, changes of genes: BRAF, RAS, c-MET and PTEN characterize sporadic forms of melano- ma. Today’s knowledge on melanoma genetics is rather inconsistent and involves different genes and signalling pathways. Series of consecutive genetic events that lead to melanoma progression is a very dinamic scientific field in medicine.