Summary. Laparoscopic surgery is a technique by which abdominal surgical treatments are performed in minimally invasive way. Many operations that once required long hospitalization are now being performed with laparoscopic technique. It has significantly reduced postoperative pain and the number of complications, shorter hospital stay, with faster recovery, and more rapid return to normal activities. These are only some of the advantages of laparoscopic surgery. The first laparoscopic chole- cystectomy in Croatia was performed on May 14, 1992, at the University Department of Surgery of »Sveti Duh« General Hospital in Zagreb. By the introduction of this method as the »gold standard« in the treatment of cholelithiasis, laparoscopic surgery has been widely accepted, and today, ten years later, has become a recognized and routine surgical method. Because of its particular performance, laparoscopic surgery requires some specific anesthesiologic adjustments. Surgical treatments are usually performed in general endotracheal anesthesia, although regional or local one could be applied too. The choice of anestesiologic technique and anesthetics depends upon preoperative patient’s condition, the kind of surgical treatment, anesthe- siologist’s evaluation, and at last upon the cooperation among patients, anesthesiologist and surgeon. The basic aim of anesthe- sia is respiratory and hemodynamic patient’s stability, and the choice of anesthesiologic technique and anesthesia should enable satisfactory analgesia, amnesia, muscular relaxation, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay.